USAID SARI Energy Countries
Nepal

Energy Sector Overview

Nepal is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the north and by India to the south, east and west. The Himalaya mountain range runs across Nepal's northern and western parts, and eight of the world's ten highest mountains, including the highest, Mount Everest, lie within its borders. Until 2006, Nepal was a kingdom. On December 28, 2007, the Interim Parliament passed a bill and declared Nepal to be a Federal Democratic Republic.

Water is an important natural resource of Nepal which represents a source of potential wealth. Commercially exploitable hydropower generating potential is estimated to be about 44,000 MW from 66 hydropower project sites. Except for some lignite deposits, Nepal has no known oil, gas or coal deposits. All commercial fossil fuels (mainly oil and coal) are either imported from India or from international markets routed through India. Fuel imports absorb over one-fourth of Nepal's foreign exchange earnings.

Despite the hydro potential, hydro electricity accounts for only 1 percent of total energy supplies. The bulk of Nepal's energy supplies come from traditional sources, mainly from fuel wood, agriculture waste and dung production by livestock. Fossil fuels, like petroleum and Coal, account for the remaining eight percent. The Energy Mix of Nepal has been detailed in the below given chart.

Energy Mix of NepalEnergy Mix of Nepal

Historically, Nepal’s power sector has been dominated by Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA), a 100 percent His Majesties Government of Nepal (HMG/N) owned utility which was established in August, 1985 under NEA Act 1984 by amalgamating the Electricity Department, incumbent Electricity Development Boards and Nepal Electricity Corporation (NEC), all wholly HMG/N owned entities. Eastern Electricity Corporation (a wholly HMG/N owned) was also merged with NEA in later years. HMG/N, the Ministry of Water Resources has general responsibilities of all private and public activities related to electricity supply including NEA. The Authority is controlled by a management Board headed by the Minister himself and with members drawn both from within and outside the Government.

Nepal's domestic electricity supply system is small. Current, total installed electric power generating capacity is dominated by hydropower, which constitutes 88 percent of installed capacity. The balance is composed of thermal installations using multi fuels and diesel plants. Hydropower facilities are mostly run-of-river and account for 71 percent of total installed capacity. Despite high level of susceptibility of run-of-river to high rates of spillage they (albeit with sufficient pondage to be used for daily peaking) represent the least-cost development plan of the Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) system. NEA hydro generation capacity is about 407 MW. Currently, only one power station--the 92 MW Kulekhani--has seasonal storage capacity. 

The story of power position in Nepal is that of highest potential and lowest consumption. The main load centre is the central zone, which includes the Kathmandu Valley. The main transmission line is 132 kilovolts (kV) and runs for approximately 1200 kilometres parallel to the Indian border from east of Nepal (Anarmani)to west of Nepal (Mahendranagar) major sub-stations are located in Hetuda, Syuchatar and Balaju. Total Energy availability and Peak demand of Nepal has been shown in the chart below.

Total Energy available and Peak Demand
Total Energy available and Peak Demand

During 1990s Nepal introduced far reaching policy changes in opening up the power sector to domestic and foreign private sectors and to boost export of power. Nepal enactment of Hydropower Development Policy 1992, Electricity Act, 1992 and Electricity Regulations, 1993 which marked the noticeable entry of Independent Power Producers (IPPs) in Nepal’s Power Sector through non-recourse financing. Further, the NEA act was amended in 1992 to “enable the NEA to function autonomously”. Since than NEAs status has been replaced from that of a sole monopoly player to that of a licensee with the responsibility of buying the privately generated power, hence promoting Independent Power Producers.

After 24 years of existence, NEA has grown into the largest utility in the country supplying electricity to almost all of the electrified areas of the country with some exception. However on totality basis NEA serves 15 percent of the total population of Nepal which implies a relatively low level of electrification. Even in this scenario there is a great disparity between urban and rural areas. Electrification rate in urban area is 90 percent where as that in rural area is 5 percent only. The position of power sector remains unsatisfactory because off high tariff, high system losses, high generation costs, high overheads, over staffing and lower domestic demand.

Time line of important development in Power sector

Year

Description

FY-1984

Nepal enacted the Nepal Electricity Authority Act, 1984 which paved the way for the formulation of Nepal Electricity Authority.

August, 1985

Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) was created under the Nepal Electricity Authority Act, 1984 through the merger of the Department of Electricity Development, Ministry of Water Resources, related Development Boards and Nepal Electricity Corporation

FY-1992

Nepal enactment of Hydropower Development Policy 1992

FY-1992

Nepal enacted Electricity Act, 1992

FY-1992

The NEA act was amended in 1992 to “enable the NEA to function autonomously”. Since than NEAs status has been replaced from that of a sole monopoly player to that of a licensee with the responsibility of buying the privately generated power, hence promoting Independent Power Producers.

FY-1993

Nepal enacted Electricity Regulations, 1993 which marked the noticeable entry of Independent Power Producers (IPPs) in Nepal’s Power Sector through non-recourse financing.

February, 2002

NEA implemented the profit centre concept by enacting “Distribution Centre Operation Regulation-2059”, for strengthen customer focus and commercial orientation in its operations.

FY-2003/04

The Distribution and Consumer Services Business Group (DCS) was formed in a part of internal unbundling process of NEA to strengthen customer focus and operate NEA in line with commercial principles.

February, 2003

NEA enacted “Community Distribution Regualton-2060” to promote and regulate the activities which was followed by the establishment of Community Rural Electrification Department (CRED).

Existing Institutional Arrangements

The Ministry for Water Resources acts as a line Ministry with primary jurisdiction over the power sector. It is a principal non-consumptive user and is rightly regarded as having the highest responsibility of harnessing water resources and transforming it into economic wealth. This challenge and recognition have led Government of Nepal to establish the current institutional arrangements at four levels –

  1. Policy Level Institution
  2. Regulatory Level Institution
  3. Operational Level Institution
  4. Implementation Level Institution

A. Policy Level Institutions

  1. Ministry of Water Resources:

It acts as a Line ministry responsible for power sector policy formulation, water resource development, oversight and regulating NEA and private power development.

  1. National Development Council:

Its key role is in issuing policy directives to the National Planning Commission for the development of annual national plans. It is chaired by the Prime Minister with broad parliamentary membership.

  1. National Planning Commission:

It acts as a Secretariat to the National Planning Commission for coordination and development of Government of Nepal 5-year multi-sectoral investment programs.

  1. Water and Energy Commission:

Provides policy advice to Government of Nepal on technical, legal, environmental, financial, and institutional matters related to water resource planning and development.

  1. Water Resources Development Council:

Advisory group constituted to provide guidance to Government of Nepal on strategic issues and policy regarding integrated water resource development.

  1. Environment Protection Council:

Responsible for policy development and preparation of environmental regulations; Environment Protection guidelines for Environmental Assessments; permitting, licensing, inspection, and monitoring of environmental licenses.

B. Regulatory Level Institution

  1. Tariff Fixation Commission:

A quasi-independent regulatory agency set up to review and approve tariff filings by NEA. It is neither required to review IPP transactions nor approve power purchase agreements between IPPs and NEA. Also, it is not required to review energy exchange arrangements between NEA and India.

C. Operational Level Institutions

  1. Nepal Electricity Authority:

A public sector utility responsible for electricity generation, transmission and distribution throughout Nepal. It is also responsible for energy exchanges with India and act as a single buyer of electricity from private independent power producers.

  1. Butwal Power Company:

It is a non-profit organization established by the United Mission of Nepal (UMN). Its prime objective is undertaking rural electrification in Nepal.

  1. Independent Power Producers.

 

D. Implementation Level Institution

  1. Electricity Development Centre (recently renamed the Department

Electricity Development):
A Government owned entity responsible for implementation and promotion of the Government's private power policy; manages Government of Nepal competitive bidding process for IPPs in small and medium size hydropower projects; functions as a "one-stop shop" for private investors in small and medium size hydropower projects; issues survey licenses; guides private investors through the maze of securing permits and licenses; and provides technical support to the Tariff Fixation Commission.

The various Councils are an integral part of the Government itself and play a role in establishing consensus on major policies and strategies which influence power sector development. Policy advice arising from such Councils gets embodied in legislation. The Environment Protection Council and the Water Resources Development Council are new bodies. The Environment Protection Council is expected to provide authority for environment regulation, set standards and provide enforcement of measures to which project design and construction and operation activities will have to subscribe. Among the institutions that directly impact upon the power sector, the National Planning Commission plays a key role in public sector review (i.e., review of NEA) and the Water and Energy Commission plays a key role in policy and planning.

Nepal Electricity Authority

Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) was created on August 16, 1985 under the Nepal Electricity Authority Act, 1984 through the merger of the Department of Electricity Development, Ministry of Water Resources, related Development Boards and Nepal Electricity Corporation.  Prime purpose of creation of NEA was to remedy the inherent weakness associated with incumbent fragmented electricity organisations with overlapping responsibilities and duplication of works. Merger of these individual organisations became necessary to achieve efficiency and reliable service.

NEA has been always languishing with the issues of high tariff, high system losses, high generation costs, high overheads, over staffing and lower domestic demand.  Its endeavours to maximize the utilization of available resources including import through trading of power from Indian short term market has not able to offset the unbalance, resulting in long hours of distasteful load shedding.

An 11.31% growth in peak power demand and 10.76% growth in energy demand in the FY 2007-08 have further aggravated the situation. In the dry months, shrinking of snow-fed rivers further worsen the situation and it were left with no option but  to impose 48 hours-a-week load curtailment for every consumers. The amount of shedded energy reached up to 2.2 million units per day. This situation could be attributed to combination of favours including its overdependence on run-of-river type of hydro projects.

NEA’s cost of service per kWh stands at NRs 7.40 against revenue rate per kWh of NRs 6.70. After adjustment of contribution of NRs 0.28 per kWh from miscellaneous incomes, NEA suffered a loss of NRs 0.42 for every kWh of energy served by it in FY 2007-08. For proper and effective functioning, NEA has evolved into various business groups namely Generation Business Group, Transmission and System Operation Business Group and Electrification Business Group. The picture below shows the corporate structure of NEA.
Corporate structure of NEA

3

A. Generation Business Group

 The Generation Business Group is entrusted with the responsibility of construction of new power stations, and operation and maintenance of existing power stations under NEA. Currently, sixteen hydropower stations and two major thermal power plants with total installed capacity of 398.39 MW and 53.41 MW (for details see Appendix 1 & 2) respectively are in operation under this Business group. There are three departments, namely, Operation and Maintenance Department, Generation Construction Department and Kaligandaki-A Hydropower Department.

During FY 2007-08, construction works of two hydroelectric projects, namely, Chameliya Hydroelectric Project and Kulekhani-III Hydroelectric Project was in progress under Business Group. A third project, Upper Tamakoshi Hydroelectric Project has also being implemented under a separate subsidiary company (Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Limited) promoted by NEA.

Performance-wise, a total of 1,795.77 GWh of energy was generated in the FY 2007/08 from NEA owned power stations, with an increase of 2.62% over the generation of previous year. The chart below presents the Availability and Utilization index of NEA.

availability-utilization chart

B. Transmission and System Operation Business Group

Transmission and System Operation (TSO) Business Group of Nepal Electricity Authority has three key responsibilities, namely:-

  1. Design and construction of transmission system of 66 kV and higher voltage level
  2. Operation and maintenance of transmission system of 66kV and higher voltage level
  3. Scheduling and dispatching of major and medium power stations connected to the grid.

These three functions are entrusted respectively to the Transmission Line/Substation Construction Department, Grid Operation Department and System Operation Department. The Transmission Line/Substation Construction Department undertakes design and construction of transmission lines and substations of 66kV and higher voltage level from the preparatory phase to final commissioning. Works at the preparatory phase include design, acquiring survey/construction licenses, field survey, environmental studies and land acquisition.  Government clearance for the environmental social impact assessment (EIA/SIA) studies is obtained prior to start of construction works. However, one of the prominent constraints faced by IPPs for development of hydropower projects has been the non feasibleness of building separate transmission lines for connecting each of the planned medium and small hydropower projects with the national grid.

In order to over come these difficulties a comprehensive transmission line identification and techno-economical feasibility needs to be done. As a result System Planning Department has identified six different transmission line corridors based on secondary information.

  1. Dhankuta-Titire corridor
  2. Marsyangdi corridor
  3. Modi-Butwal corridor
  4. Kabeli/Tamor corridor
  5. Sunkoshi corridor

The following projects have been planned to be taken up for execution from FY 2008/09. A detailed map of Nepal transmission line is given in appendix 3.

  1. Middle Marshyangdi – Damauli – Marshyangdi 132 kV Transmission Line   Project.
  2. Kabeli – Damak 132 kV Transmission Line Project
  3. Butwal – Kohalpur 132 kV Second Circuit Transmission Line Project
  4. Pathlaiya 132 kV Substation Project
  5. Anbukhaireni 132/33 kV, 15 MVA Substation Project
  6. Matatirtha Substation Expansion Project
  7. New Marsyangdi – Matatirtha 220 kV Transmission Line Project
  8. Damak 132/33 kV, 30 MVA Substation Project
  9. Syangja 132/33 kV, 15 MVA Substation Project
  10. Chapali 132 kV Substation Project
  11. Singati – Lamasangu 132 kV Transmission Line Project                                                                        

C. Nepal – India Cross Border Transmission Line Project

Under Cross Border Transmission Line Project three Indo-Nepal Cross border Transmission Interconnections have been identified: NEA has recently completed transmission line route alignment survey of the following transmission links:-

  1. Duhabi-Purnia 400 kV, 90 km (Duhabi-Jogbani, 25.8 km within Nepal)
  2. Butwal-Gorakhpur 400 kV, 100 m (Butwal-Sunauli, 20.4 km within Nepal)
  3. Dhalkebar-Mujaffarpur 400 kV, 140 km (Dhalkebar-Bhittamof, 39 km within Nepal)

EIA study for the transmission lines are in process and expected to be completed within six months. NEA and IL&FS Infrastructure Development Corporation (India) have formed two special purpose joint venture companies: “Power Transmission Company Nepal Pvt. Ltd.” (PTCN) have its registered office at C/o NEA, Durbarmarg, Kathmandu, and “Cross Border Power Transmission Company Pvt Ltd. (CPTC) having its registered office in New Delhi, India. NEA and IL&FS Infrastructure Development Corporation (India) will own 50% and 50% equity respectively in PTCN, whereas, CPTC is currently a 100% subsidiary of IL&FS. As per the arrangement, IL&FS will offload their shares to NEA and PGCIL by 26% each.

Each company is responsible for overall construction, operation and maintenance of the portion of cross border transmission line under the respective country. Dhalkebar-Muzaffarpur 400 kV line has been identified for implementation in the first phase. Major components of the Project for the first phase consists of construction of 2x100 MVA, 220/132 kV Substation at Dhalkebar and 39 km, 400 kV transmission line from Dhalkebar to Bathanaha (Bhittamod). The Transmission Line will be charged at 220 kV voltage level. Estimated cost for this work is about NRS 1,553.32 million. Tendering process is expected to be started from FY 2008/09. The Dhalkebar-Mujaffarpur portion of the project is scheduled to be completed within two years.

D. Distribution and Consumer Services Business Group

The Distribution and Consumer Services Business Group (DCS) was formed in FY 2003/04 as a part of internal unbundling process of NEA to strengthen customer focus and operate NEA in line with commercial principles. This is one of the core and the largest among the five business groups of NEA in terms of number of employees and business activities. DCS accounts for about 55% of the total NEA staff providing various services to about 97% of NEA customers.

DCS is entrusted with the key responsibility of overall management of electricity distribution network of NEA including operation, maintenance, rehabilitation and expansion of the network up to the 33 kV voltage levels, together with customer service activities like new connection, meter reading, billing, revenue collection, customer grievance handling and so forth. The Business Side Management for the optimal use of electricity. DCS is headed by a General Manager and is organized into three departments at the centre and five regional offices, each of which is headed by a Director.

In FY 2007/08, a total number of customers under DCS reached 1,475,975, an increase of 9.32% over the preceding fiscal year. Similarly, a total of 2,322.94 GWh of energy was sold earning gross revenue of Rs. 15, 429.67 million in this year. The combined industrial and commercial consumer categories represent only 2.09% of the total number of customers but accounts for 45.85% of total sales. Similarly, the domestic consumer category represents 95.64% of total number of customers but accounts for 40.36% of total sales. Compared to the preceding year energy sales and gross revenue earned by DCS increased by 6.61% and 5% respectively. The following pie-chart highlights the number of customers, sales and revenue contribution from different consumer categories.

Number of customers, Sales & Revenue contributions from various consumer categories

 

Consumers Chart

Further, as a drive to strengthen customer focus and commercial orientation in its operations, NEA had implemented the profit centre concept by enacting “Distribution Centre Operation Regulation-2059” in February, 2002, whereby the Distribution Centres were required to operate on commercial principle and the centre chiefs were made accountable in achieving specified performance targets. Reduction of system losses, shortening of average collection period, improvement in stock utilization, enhancement of quality customer services, improvement of overall efficiency, increase in sales and reduction of costs were defined as the major performance areas.

E. Electrified Business Group
Electrification Business Group is mainly responsible for rural electrification in Nepal. Besides rural electrification, the Business Group also oversees distribution and consumer service functions of 18 centres located at different districts. These centres serve 48,297 consumers in total.

Presently, several projects are being implemented under this Business Group, The ongoing donor assisted projects are: Rural Electrification, Distribution and Transmission Project with loan assistance from Asian Development Bank; Distribution and Rural Electrification Project financed by the World Bank; Kailali-Kanchanpur Rural Electrification Project funded by DANIDA and llam Rural Electrification Project with Non-project grant assistance from the Government of Japan. Apart from these with financing from GoN, many rural electrification projects are under implementation through Small Hydropower and Rural Electrification Department (SHPRED) of this Business Group.

SHPRED is responsible for construction, operation and maintenance of isolated small hydropower plants, execution of rural electrification, extension of the National Grid to remote hilly regions, and the establishment of distribution system to provide electricity service to rural population. Under the Department, 26 small hydropower plants, 2 solar plants and 7 distribution branch offices carry out various activities related to operation maintenance of electricity generation, distribution, customer service and so forth, covering 27 districts in 12 zones of the country, Out of 26 small hydropower plants, 7 have been leased out to private firms and 4 have been leased out to the consumer communities, which operate under the guidelines set forth by NEA.

Rural Access to Electricity

In Nepal, the access to electricity and to commercial energy sources in general, in the rural areas is very low (about 5 percent of the rural population has access to electricity). This is partly a consequence of the rugged terrain in the country; but clearly providing greater access to electricity for many population groups in the country could be improved. The strong links between rural electricity and poverty reduction underscore the importance of improving electricity access to rural communities.

The lack of access to commercial energy forces rural consumers to rely on traditional fuels- mainly fuel wood, agriculture waste and animal dung-for cooking and lighting needs. The heavy reliance on traditional fuels poses serious threats to the health of rural populations, especially women and children who are most exposed to indoor pollution. The main challenge therefore, is to provide sustainable and affordable access to energy in the rural areas. The importance of meeting this challenge is articulated in the Ninth Plan, which documents GON's desire to improve the provision of electricity services to rural areas.

At present, except for initiatives such as those by the Butwal Power Company (BPT). Rural electrification is the sole responsibility of NEA. The BPT is the only other non-NEA agency that has so far implemented grid-connected rural electrification." In Nepal, the private sector has indeed met with some success in implementing rural electrification projects. At present, all projects dealing with energy address the need for creating the right environment that encourages private participation (such as the DANIDA project, planned ADB and World Bank projects, and the planned GTZ project). A number of national and international NGO's and private investors are also working to achieve the same objective.

The Butwal Power Company Ltd. (BPC) is a non-profit organization established by the United Mission of Nepal (UMN). BPC has been able to deliver rural electrification in Nepal at much lower prices than the NEA. For example, investment costs per household were in the order of US$150 (considerably below the worldwide average of US$600 per connection. The BPC cost however is not the true cost since much critical input, especially foreign expertise and technical know-how, are provided free of charge or at much reduced cost. For example, engineering fees, contractors' overhead and profit or risk margins are not charged to BPC projects. The cost only reflects pure material and labour charges and excludes the cost of project identification, community relations and user motivation which significantly contributed to the success of the projects.

Further, in order to promote community participation in rural electrification, GoN has declared a policy, whereby 80 percent of the capital cost of electrification will be provided by the Government, provided that, the community bears the balance 20% of the cost. To promote and regulate the activity, NEA has enacted “Community Distribution Regualton-2060”. Following the enactment of the regulation, Community Rural Electrification Department (CRED) was established in February 2003 to carry out community based rural electrification works in an organized way.

The public response to this initiative of NEA has been overwhelming. Altogether, 176,000 households are going to be added to the distribution system after completion of programs approved till FY 2007/08.

Details of works accomplished under CRED from FY 2004/05 to 2007/08


Description

Unit

HT Line length

1,130 km

LT Line length

3,266 km

Distribution Transformer

745 Nos.

33/11 kV, 3 MVA Substation

3 Nos.

CRED status till June 30, 2008

Ongoing Projects

Construction of Middle Marsyangdi Hydroelectric Project (70MW) had commenced on June 25, 2001 with a target to start power generation after 4 years of construction period. Progress of the project was bogged down due to numerous obstacles including contractual discords. Some of the contractual disputes have been stockpiling for 2 years thereby impeding the smooth progress of the Project. Most of the disputes have been resolved now. With 97% of civil works already completed, the Project is now nearing completion.

Chameliya Hydroelectric Project (30MW) situated in the Far West of Nepal is also moving on the track. Following the award of civil contract to China Gezhouba Water and Power Group Company Limite (CGGC) on December 21, 2006, the Project construction is gaining momentum. The Project is scheduled to be completed in year 2011. Mobilization and preparatory works for Kulekhani-III Hydroelectric Project (14 MW) have already started. The Project is schedule to be commissioned in FY 2010/11. To mobilize financial resources for funding Chameliya and Kulekhani-III project NEA took a maiden initiative of raising fund from the domestic capital market by floating Power Bond. In the first phase, NEA Power Bond with a value of NRs 1,500 million was issued successfully and was subscribed for the full amount by the investors. The response of the individual as well as the institutional investors has been extremely encouraging. This pioneering initiate of the NEA has opened up a new model of fund raising for hydropower projects in Nepal.

Several transmission projects are under implementation. Khimti-Dhalkebar 220 kV Transmission line Project, the first ever project of 220kV voltage level in Nepal, is progressing well and is expected to be commissioned in FY 2008/09. Thankot-Chapagaon-Bhaktapur 132 kV Transmission Line Project under which a 132 ring will be completed in Kathmandu valley, is going on in full swing. This Project is scheduled to be completed by FY 2008/09. Under Hetauda-Bardghat 220 kV Transmission line Project, construction of Hetauda-Bharatpur 220 kV Transmission Line and associated substations are under implementation for which tender has already been invited from prospective bidders. After completion, this phase of the Project will ease transmission congestion in Heatauda-Bharatpur corridor. This first phase of the Project is expected to be completed by December 2010. As this 220 kV line will not be available till 2010, Hetauda-Bharatpur 132 kV Conductor Upgrading Project has been implemented to temporarily remedy the overloading problem existing in 132 kV Hetauda-Bharatpur line. The works under this project will be completed by FY 2008/09. In addition to the above several Grid Substation Reinforcement Project, Chandranigahpur System Reinforcement Project Kawasoti 132 kV Substation Project is also under execution. These projects will not only enhance quality of supply in and around the project area but also pave way for extensive electrification in the adjoining districts.

NEA has been continuing rural electrification programs with financial support from Government of Nepal and donor agencies. Government of Nepal provided Rs 100 million to complete electrification works that have remained incomplete for past several years for lack o fund. Almost all outstanding works have been completed in the following years despite adverse situation prevailing in the country. As a result, about 49,000 households would get access to electricity benefiting 267,000 consumers.

Construction work of 500 KW Heldung small Hydropower Project in Hunia has been completed and the Project in Mugu is nearing Completion. The 33 kV sub-transmission lines and distribution lines are being continuously extended to pave way for the electrification of rural areas. Community based rural electrification programs funded with 80% financing from GoN and 20% from the local communities are given continuation although the tariff modality of the scheme itself is a matter of concern for the sustainability of NEA.

Under the Rural Electrification and Distribution System Reinforcement Project jointly funded by ADB, GoN and NEA, rural electrification works are being carried out in 277 VDCs of 22 districts. By the end of FY 2007-08, 92 percent of the Project works have been completed. The remaining works are expected to be completed in FY 2008/09. Table below represents the list of under construction and planned and proposed Power projects and Transmission lines.

Under construction, planned and proposed Power Projects and Transmission Lines

Power Projects and Transmission

 

Appendix: 1

Power projects in NepalPower Projects

 

Appendix: 2

Small Hydro Power Stations, Isolated Solar & Diesel Power Stations in NepalPower Development Map

Appendix: 3

Power Stations Transmission lines & Substations in NepalPower Development Map


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